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Chapter 14: Taxes And Assessments in New York Pre-Licensing Courses

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Taxes and assessments are an integral part of real estate transactions in New York. Understanding the ins and outs of these concepts is crucial for anyone seeking pre-licensing in the state. In this comprehensive guide, we will dive into the world of taxes and assessments, exploring what they are, why they matter, and how they affect the real estate industry in New York.

Chapter 14: Taxes And Assessments Overview

Before we delve into the specifics, let’s start with an overview of taxes and assessments. Taxes are an obligatory payment imposed by the government, typically based on income, property value, or transactions. They are essential for funding public services such as schools, roads, and emergency services. Income taxes are levied on individuals and businesses in proportion to their income levels, while property taxes are based on the assessed value of real estate. Transaction taxes, such as sales tax, are imposed on goods and services at the point of sale.

Assessments, on the other hand, are evaluations of property value that determine the amount of tax owed. These assessments are conducted by local government authorities or independent assessors to ensure that property taxes are levied fairly and accurately. Assessments take into account factors such as location, size, condition, and improvements made to the property. They play a crucial role in determining the fair market value of a property and assessing the tax burden on the owner.

What Is Covered in the Chapter 14: Taxes And Assessments

When it comes to pre-licensing in New York, you need to have a comprehensive understanding of the various taxes and assessments involved in real estate transactions. This includes property taxes, income taxes, transfer taxes, and state and local assessments. By delving into each of these areas, you will gain a well-rounded understanding of how taxes and assessments impact both buyers and sellers in the state.

Property taxes are a significant consideration for both buyers and sellers in New York. These taxes are levied by local governments based on the assessed value of the property. Understanding how property taxes are calculated and when they are due is crucial for real estate professionals to provide accurate information to their clients. Additionally, buyers need to factor in property taxes when determining the affordability of a home, as they can significantly impact monthly mortgage payments.

Income taxes are another important aspect of real estate transactions in New York. Both buyers and sellers may be subject to income taxes related to the sale or purchase of a property. It’s essential for real estate agents to have a basic understanding of how income taxes are affected by real estate transactions so they can advise their clients accordingly. By being knowledgeable about income tax implications, agents can help clients make informed decisions and potentially save money in the long run.

Taxes and assessments play a vital role in the real estate industry, influencing various aspects of property ownership and transactions. Property taxes are a primary source of revenue for local governments, funding essential services such as schools, infrastructure, and public safety. Understanding how property taxes are calculated and what they fund can provide valuable insights into the overall financial health and priorities of a community.Assessments, on the other hand, are evaluations of a property’s value for tax purposes. These assessments can impact not only how much property tax an owner pays but also the perceived value of the property in the market. For real estate professionals, staying informed about assessment methodologies and trends in property valuations is essential for accurately pricing properties and advising clients on investment decisions.Moreover, property taxes and assessments are not static figures but can change over time due to various factors such as market fluctuations, property improvements, or changes in local tax policies. Keeping abreast of these changes and understanding their implications is crucial for all stakeholders in the real estate industry to make informed decisions and navigate the complex landscape of property ownership and transactions effectively.

Understanding Taxes And Assessments

Understanding taxes and assessments requires a grasp of both the legal and technical aspects. Familiarize yourself with the relevant laws, regulations, and codes, as well as the various forms and documents used in real estate transactions. Additionally, learn about the different methods used to assess property value, such as the income approach, market approach, and cost approach. The more you educate yourself on these matters, the better equipped you’ll be to handle taxes and assessments in your real estate endeavors.

When it comes to taxes, it’s crucial to understand the different types that may apply to real estate, including property taxes, capital gains taxes, and transfer taxes. Property taxes are levied by local governments based on the assessed value of the property and are used to fund public services such as schools, roads, and emergency services. Capital gains taxes, on the other hand, are incurred when you sell a property for more than you paid for it, and the amount of tax owed is based on the profit made. Transfer taxes are imposed by state or local governments when ownership of a property is transferred from one party to another.

Assessments, on the other hand, are charges imposed on property owners by a governing body to fund specific public projects or services that directly benefit the assessed properties. These can include assessments for road maintenance, street lighting, or sewer improvements. It’s important to review any assessment notices carefully to understand what the charges are for and how they were calculated. By staying informed and knowledgeable about taxes and assessments, you can navigate the complex world of real estate transactions with confidence and clarity.

Definition and Purpose of Taxes And Assessments

Taxes and assessments have a dual purpose – to generate revenue for the government and to ensure a fair distribution of tax burden among property owners. Taxes fund essential public services such as schools, roads, and public safety. Assessments, on the other hand, help determine the value of a property and establish an equitable tax burden based on that value. By understanding the definition and purpose of taxes and assessments, you will gain insight into their importance in the real estate industry.

Furthermore, taxes and assessments play a crucial role in shaping community development and infrastructure. The revenue generated from property taxes is often allocated to fund local projects that benefit residents, such as parks, libraries, and community centers. Assessments, which are based on property values, incentivize property owners to maintain and improve their properties, leading to overall neighborhood enhancement and increased property values.

It is important to note that taxes and assessments can vary significantly depending on the location and type of property. Different states and municipalities have their own tax laws and assessment methods, which can impact the amount of tax burden placed on property owners. Understanding these differences can help property owners make informed decisions about their investments and financial planning.

Chapter 14: Taxes And Assessments Topics

The topics in this chapter address the complexities of taxation in the realm of New York real estate. They are crucial for your understanding of property management, real estate principles and practices, and play a significant role in the final exam for your license.

Purpose of Taxation

Taxation serves as a key source of revenue for municipal agencies and supports services vital to property value, such as education and infrastructure. Your knowledge of this supports effective negotiation in property management.

Why Tax Land and Improvements as Opposed to Sales and Income Taxes

Land and improvements are a stable tax base compared to sales and income, which can fluctuate, providing predictability for both various taxing jurisdictions and property owners. This also influences environmental issues and land use regulations.

Calculation of Real Estate Taxes

The tax rate, multiplied by the assessed value, determines the real estate tax due. Understanding this calculation is essential for real estate finance and when advertising properties, ensuring clients are informed.

Grievance Board

If you believe an assessment is unfair, you may present your case to a Grievance Board or engage in a Small Claims Assessment Review. This is particularly relevant in protesting commercial property assessments and seeking exemptions.

Tax Liens

Tax liens are placed on properties for unpaid taxes, affecting both residential and commercial properties. This presents important considerations for your real estate investment strategies and discussions with clients on the implications of delinquent taxes.

Agent Responsibilities

Your responsibilities include being well-versed with course material regarding assessments, tax liens, and the implications for mortgage brokerage. Your certificate of completion in this chapter confirms you are equipped to advise clients, ensuring commission while upholding Corofy’s standard of excellence.

Licensing Requirements

To embark on a real estate career in New York, you need to meet specific licensing requirements, which include completing pre-licensing education and passing the state licensing exam. Below are key details on the prerequisites you must fulfill.

New York Real Estate License

To qualify as a real estate agent or a broker in New York, you must be at least 18 years of age and have a valid NYS Photo Driver’s License. The first step is enrolling in a Qualifying Course that covers essential topics including the Law of Agency. This course prepares you for the New York State Licensing Exam.

Course Completion

The pre-licensing education consists of 77 hours of coursework, which includes quizzes and practice exams to ensure you are ready for the Final Proctored Course Exam. To receive your Course Completion Certificate, you must achieve a minimum score of 70% on the final exam.

Educational Providers

When selecting an educational provider, opt for user-friendly platforms like Corofy, where courses are 100% online. Corofy offers comprehensive pre-licensing education, including supplemental content and dedicated customer support. Their refund policy ensures that your satisfaction is prioritized. Courses feature a mix of multiple choice questions to test your knowledge.

By fulfilling these prerequisites, you position yourself for success on the New York State License Exam and step confidently into your new role in the real estate industry.

Chapter 14: Taxes And Assessments Vocabulary

As with any specialized field, taxes and assessments come with their own vocabulary. Familiarize yourself with terms such as mill rate, tax lien, assessed value, homestead exemption, and tax abatement. By understanding these terms and their meanings, you will be able to navigate tax and assessment-related discussions with ease, further establishing your expertise in the field.

Let’s delve a bit deeper into these terms. The mill rate, for example, refers to the amount of tax payable per dollar of the assessed value of a property. Understanding the mill rate is crucial for property owners as it directly impacts the amount of property tax they owe. Tax liens, on the other hand, represent a legal claim by the government on a property due to the owner’s unpaid taxes. This can lead to serious consequences such as foreclosure if not addressed promptly.

Assessed value is the value assigned to a property by a public tax assessor for the purpose of taxation. It is important to note that this value may differ from the market value of the property. Homestead exemption provides a tax break for homeowners on their primary residence, reducing the taxable value of the property. Lastly, tax abatement is a reduction or exemption from taxes granted by a government for a specific period to encourage certain activities such as property development or renovation.

Expanding your knowledge of taxes and assessments goes beyond just fulfilling a regulatory requirement or gaining a competitive edge in the real estate market. Understanding the intricacies of property taxes and assessments can also empower you to help your clients make informed decisions when buying or selling real estate. For example, being able to explain how property taxes are calculated or how assessments impact property values can make you a valuable resource for clients navigating the complexities of the real estate market.Moreover, staying informed about tax laws and assessments can open up new opportunities for you to provide additional services to your clients. For instance, you may be able to offer guidance on tax implications for different types of real estate investments or help clients identify potential tax incentives for property development projects. By expanding your expertise in this area, you can not only enhance your credibility as a real estate professional but also add more value to the services you offer, ultimately fostering long-term relationships with your clients.


In conclusion, taxes and assessments are fundamental components of real estate transactions in New York. Whether you’re a real estate agent, appraiser, buyer, or seller, understanding the intricacies of taxes and assessments is crucial for navigating the industry successfully. By educating yourself on the various types of taxes and assessments, familiarizing yourself with relevant terminology, and utilizing resources like Corofy, you can position yourself as an expert in the field and ensure smooth and successful real estate transactions in the Empire State.

Who is Corofy?

Before being a school, Corofy is a community. Our founder, Eddy Boccara, started his real estate career as a real estate salesperson looking for a side hustle.

Since then, he’s had a passion for New York real estate and specifically the talented individuals that take the leap to get their real estate license and help this industry progress.

Eddy created Corofy with one goal in mind: to provide people with quality real estate education that actually helps them build a career they can be proud of.

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